Apa kata Dubes China dan Dubes AS soal Climate Change?
Pengantar: Tanggal 14 September, Foreign Policy Community Indonesia, yang didirikan oleh mantan wamenlu Dino Patti Djalal, mengundang sejumlah dutabesar di Indonesia untuk mendengarkan paparan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, Siti Nurbaya Bakar, dan Ketua Dewan Pengarah Perubahan Iklim Sarwono Kusumaatmadja, serta sejumlah pembicara lainnya (mau nge-blog soal ini begitu ada kesempatan). Pertemuan bersifat tertutup. Chattam House Rule applied. Saya mendapatkan ijin dari Dubes Xie Feng untuk memuat pidatonya, dan pidato Dubes Robert Blake ada di situs kedubes AS. China dan AS adalah dua negara penghasil emisi karbon terbesar.
Remarks By Ambassador of Chineese, H.E. Xie Feng
It’s a great pleasure to attend today’s discussion and share with you China’s position and expectations for the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, or the COP-21.
Let me start with a couple of figures to illustrate China’s story in tackling climate change. From 2005 to 2014, China’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit of GDP declined by 33.8%. The share of non-fossil fuels in our primary energy consumption climbed to 11.2%. China’s installed capacities of hydro, wind and solar power increased by 3 times, 90 times and 400 times respectively. China’s added renewable electricity consumption has surpassed that of all the OECD members combined. And our forest area and forest stock volume increased by 21.6 million hectares and 2.188 billion cubic meters respectively.
Together, they offer a snapshot and proud record of what China has achieved over the years. They send a loud and clear message. The Chinese government is firmly committed and is making relentless efforts to speed up industrial and energy restructuring, save energy, cut emissions and build a better environment.
On June 30th this year, China submitted to the United Nations a blueprint for our efforts to tackle climate change—Enhanced Actions on Climate Change: China’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. China has announced that by 2030, we will cut CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65% from the 2005 level, raise the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20%, and increase the forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters on the 2005 level. Our goal is for China’s CO2 emissions to peak around 2030 and we will do all we can to make it happen as early as possible. China’s actions aim at global climate governance and represent the greatest efforts China could make to achieve the goals of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Preliminary analysis shows that China’s emissions will peak when our per capita GDP reaches roughly 10,000 USD, and the per capita emissions are around 8.6 tons. That’s to say, China is striving to reach its emissions peak earlier than the developed countries, with a lower level of per capita emissions. This will be China’s historic contribution to the global endeavor to mitigate the climate change.
In addition, China will further strengthen south-south cooperation on climate change, fulfill our commitments and do everything in our power to provide assistance and support to other developing countries.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Reaching an agreement as scheduled at the United Nations Climate Conference in Paris late this year is the shared aspiration of the international community. To this end, China would like to make the following four proposals.
First, fairness. The negotiations and the agreement must stick to the principles of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities, equity and respective capabilities.
Second, balance. The agreement should not only focus on mitigation, but also broader issues including adaptation, funding and technology.
Third, credibility. All parties should implement the consensus that has been reached. In particular, developed countries need to intensify emission reduction and honor their commitments in terms of financial support and technology transfer to developing countries. This will lay the foundation to build mutual trust in the negotiations.
Fourth and most importantly, cooperation. Climate change is a global challenge faced by all humanity. It can’t be tackled without the collaborative efforts of all the countries. China is ready to work with all parties to push for a comprehensive and balanced outcome at the Paris Conference and find a fair, effective and mutually beneficial solution for coping climate change.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
As Chinese President Xi Jinping pointed out, responding to climate change is what China needs to do to achieve sustainable development at home as well as fulfill its due international obligation as a responsible major country. This is not at others’ demand, but on our own initiative. Gold and silver mountains are not as precious as green mountains. A beautiful China with blue sky and clear water is the shared dream of all the Chinese. We are still a developing country with a 1.3 billion population. We face a daunting task to grow the economy, improve people’s lives and protect the environment. Looking forward, China will adhere to its national policies of resource conservation and environmental protection. We will lay equal emphasis on mitigation and adaptation? continue to restructure the economy, and accelerate an energy revolution in terms of production and consumption. We are committed to embracing a sustainable future that contributes to economic growth, social progress and tackling climate change.
Remarks by US Ambassador, H.E Robert Blake
September 14, 2015
Minister of Environment and Forestry Siti Nurbaya Bakar, Climate Envoy Rachmat Witoelar, Climate Change Steering Committee Chair Pak Sarwonon Kusumaatmadja, fellow Ambassadors, Pak Dino Patti Djalal, distinguished guests,
I appreciate the opportunity to address this gathering on the importance of acting on climate change. I thank the Foreign Policy Community of Indonesia for organizing this event and bringing us all together.
Climate change is one of the most serious and pressing challenges facing all of us today: as government officials, private citizens, parents – all of us have a reason to address this challenge and take actions to mitigate the danger coming from the rising concentration of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere.
Just a few weeks ago, when President Obama was in Alaska to address the GLACIER conference on the Arctic, he pointed out that climate change is the “challenge that will define the contours of this century more dramatically than any other.”
President Obama chose to speak about this topic in Alaska because the Arctic is one of the areas of the world that is showing the impacts of climate change most clearly. But those impacts are not limited to the Arctic, or to developing countries.
These impacts are affecting Indonesia already, and will worsen, undermining development and exacerbating ?poverty, jeopardizing President Jokowi’s priorities of improving Indonesians’ standards of living.
Let me share a few clear indicators of climate change that are particularly relevant to Indonesia.
The average sea surface level has risen by about 20 centimeters since the end of the 19th century. Forty percent of Jakarta is already below sea level and vulnerable to flooding – imagine the costs to protect this city against a sea that is another 20, 40, or even 60 centimeters higher by the end of this century.
Indonesia is world-famous for its spectacular coral reefs, the heart of the Coral Triangle. Yet carbon dioxide in the air is increasing ocean acidity, making it harder for corals to build their structures. If carbon dioxide concentrations continue their current path, the region could lose 30% of its corals by 2050. Imagine the loss to Indonesia’s natural heritage, to the fisheries industries dependent on healthy reefs, and to the multi-billion dollar tourism industry anchored by these reefs.
Rainfall will become more unpredictable and intense. Think of the damage already caused by storms, flooding, and mudslides, and imagine the losses as these events become more frequent and more intense. The unpredictability of the rainfall, even if the amount does not change, will also challenge farmers who already are under pressure to increase yields to feed Indonesia’s population.
Speaking of rainfall, we are expecting an increasingly severe El Nino event this year, reducing rainfall in much of Indonesia. Climate change models predict that El Nino events will double in frequency. The El Nino-induced droughts will stress Indonesia’s farmers and food security and cause more frequent forest fires.
That’s why the U.S. has a $500 million program in Indonesia both to help catalyze investment in renewable energy and to partner with Indonesia to preserve carbon-rich primary forests and encourage sustainable forest management.
With that context of the urgency of this challenge, I would like to outline my Government’s perspective on the upcoming Conference of Parties.
Securing a new Climate Agreement in Paris is one of President Obama’s top priorities this year. Reaching a new international agreement in Paris would be an historic step. It would establish, for the first time, an ambitious, durable climate regime that applies to all countries, is fair, focuses both on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and building resilience, includes strong accountability measures, and ensures financial and technical assistance to those in need.
The deal is there to be done in Paris if we are smart, make compromises, find common ground and work together.
The U.S. announced our INDC in March of this year to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 26-28% below 2005 levels in 2025. This target is consistent with achieving deep, economy-wide reductions of over 80 percent by 2050. It roughly doubles the pace of emission reductions for the period 2020-2025 as compared to 2005-2020.
The United States is leading on the domestic front too. Since President Obama took office, the United States has taken historic steps to sharply reduce its emissions, especially through the President’s Climate Action Plan, putting us on track to meet our goal of reducing emissions in the range of 17 percent below 2005 levels in 2020. We have:
- More than tripled electricity generation from wind, and increased solar energy generation by more than twenty fold;
- Established the toughest fuel economy standards in U.S. history for cars and trucks, which will double average fuel efficiency from 2025; and
- Proposed groundbreaking regulations to cut carbon emissions by 30 percent from U.S. power plants, which account for a third of U.S. emissions.
And now, with Paris fast approaching, we are very pleased that Indonesia is about to submit a clear target, one that Minister Siti and others have noted has an “unconditional” core that is not contingent on external finance.
With major economies such as Indonesia signaling they are on board, we can send a powerful signal of leadership and inject important momentum into the climate negotiations.
Features for Final Agreement in Paris
Allow me to share our objectives for the final agreement that we seek to obtain from the Conference of Parties:
First, the outcome needs to be ambitious. The core objective of the 1992 Framework Convention is to avoid dangerous climate change, so we need to reduce emissions as effectively as possible. The first step is for countries to come forward with strong, timely INDC targets. And the agreement also needs to include solid accountability measures so everyone can see how countries are doing in implementing their targets.
Second, we need to elevate the importance of adaptation. Countries need to do sound adaptation planning and to implement those plans in order to build resilience to the impacts of climate change.
Third, the agreement needs to be fair to all and relevant to a dynamic and evolving world. What we expect from countries should be differentiated to capture their varying circumstances and capabilities. But an agreement for the 2020s and beyond cannot be bifurcated on the basis of fixed 1992 categories or equivalents, such as developed versus developing countries.
Fourth, the outcome needs to ensure strong, ongoing financial assistance, especially aimed at adaptation for the most vulnerable, like small islands and African states, consistent with the robust measures taken in recent years.
U.S. Actions to Support Developing Countries
Let me assure you that we are prepared to do our part not only on our own commitments, but also to assist other countries to meet their commitments. I know my time is short, so I will only mention a very few items to note our international and domestic efforts here.
- We have significantly increased financial support for developing country efforts to reduce emissions and increase adaptation . Last weekend in Paris, the United States and Switzerland hosted senior officials from 18 developed countries to discuss our collaborative efforts to scale up climate finance, and to provide increased transparency on our progress. The data from the World Bank and the IPCC show that we are well on our way toward the goal of mobilizing $100 billion of funding from public and private sources by 2020.
- Late last year, the United States announced a $3 billion pledge to the new Green Climate Fund, and worked with others to secure total pledges of over $10 billion.
- And we are committed to ensuring a strong, ongoing program of financial and technical assistance in the post-2020 regime.
To sum up – the United States under President Obama is fully engaged both domestically and internationally to meeting the challenge posed by climate change. We are totally committed to reaching an effective Paris deal that launches a major climate effort for the decades to come, and as the third and fourth largest countries in the world, and among the largest emitters of greenhouse gasses, we look forward to working in tandem with our Indonesian partners to help make this happen.